Research Paper

Exploring the Archaeological Landscape of Seer Khad River Basin of Siwalik Frontal Range, Himachal Pradesh: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Worrel Kumar Bain,Dwipen Bezbaruah,Sarat Phukan

Year: 2024, Volume: 15, Page/Article: 1-41, DOI:

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The Indian Siwalik Hills are globally significant due to their diverse eco-geographic regions full of fossiliferous and implementiferous localities. Although there have been sporadic discoveries of Palaeolithic remains, a considerable portion of the area remains unexplored, including the Seer Khad River Basin (SKRB) in Himachal Pradesh. The present study aimed to explore the archaeological landscape of the SKRB, focusing on fresh data from newly discovered lithic assemblages. The preliminary findings of the present study highlight the variability of the lithic assemblage found under the core and flake lithic traditions, showing numerous technological and typological features that reflect the cognitive level of the prehistoric population. The lithic assemblages in SKRB also reveal that the prehistoric population preferred water sources and locally available quartzite and sandstone as raw materials for stone tool-making, which reflects general Palaeolithic occupational behaviour. Moreover, the study sheds light on post-Siwalik depositions in the study area. The lithic artefacts exhibit different spatial distribution patterns, frequencies, and typo-technological patterns, assumed to originate from a range of chronologies no younger than the Middle Pleistocene. The study also focuses on the local geomorphology, lithology, and drainage network of the basin. The data presented in this paper will aid in further refining regional studies to understand the changing nature of the Siwalik Frontal Range during the post-Siwalik period. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the prehistoric population’s behaviour and technological advancements, contributing to a better understanding of the area’s history and evolution.